The main purpose of this paper is to outline the educational policies and background in Japan, and to discover what in the background influenced the introduction of the IB and current status in Japan. This paper illustrates the focal characteristic of Japanese educational system that influenced the introduction of IB and its expansion in Japan: the centralized power of influence on the educational system led by the national government. The top-down approach of reforms made the challenges and further complicated the contradiction when introducing IB into practice. First, even though the national government enacted reforms which involve the entrance examination for IB graduates, the results of test in examination remained to be an extremely substantial factor in the admission of universities. Second, the national government introduced IB curriculum complying with the national curriculum, however, the government had little discussion about the teachers who were not familiar with IB and have never taught in IB curriculum. Finally, there are the gap between the concept of IB education focuses on international mindedness and the national government focus on IB education as the purpose of fostering globally competent human resources. Since the Japanese government and the Japan Business Federation made the reforms that the expansion of IB schools in Japan, the reform of the Japanese education and the number of IB schools in Japan will be expected to increase in the future. However, to become a well- practiced IB schools, which is to educate IB principles, it is impossible to educate internationally minded students unless principals and teachers and educational stakeholders work collaboratively on the same page in principle to implement a true IB-like education.
In Search of the Characteristics IB Educational System and Backward Design
International Baccalaureate(IB), which is spreading around the world, transcends the boundaries of the specific subject. It focuses on the international perspective and emphasizes working together with others through fusion and harmony. It teaches creative and practical ability to solve complicated problems. We need people who can work with others to solve the problem with their own personality. Through education, students can grow into either passive and trapped thinkers, or active and open minded thinkers. To become a person of the capabilities and skills who is required by the present age, he must be able to access a lot of information and use what he has learned. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the characteristics of curricula meanings of IB educational System and its implications. The main reason of this study is to explore the signification of IB curriculum, the relevance of IB educational system and backward design by analyzing the previous educational implications and the discussions.
Korean Soft Power in Higher Education in the United States, Vietnam and Japan
Korean popular music and dramas have moved from being a regional Asian force to a global one made possible by the Internet and the growth of the Korean economy and its globalization. In this paper, I consider variables that might mediate how the soft power reflected in the popularity of Korean cultural products worldwide impacts the establishment of programs and courses in Korean language and culture at the university level. I draw from examples in the United States, Vietnam and Japan. Existing measurements of soft power indicate Korean soft power is not as strong as the current global appeal of Korean popular artists suggest. The reach of Korean governmental institutions that promote Korean culture worldwide is limited compared to China or Japan, for example. Nevertheless, the study of Korean language and culture is particularly strong in China, Vietnam, and Japan. In the United States, we are seeing some growth in Korean language and culture programs that suggest a modest affect from Korean soft power. More refinement in measurements of soft power and further analyses of populations interested in Korean popular music and dramas is needed to understand the causal connection between the soft power reflected in the popularity of Korean cultural products worldwide and the establishment of programs and courses in Korean language and culture at the university level.
Educational discourses of our age are dominated by the universal standard and globalization. 500 hundred years ago, schools around the world were quite diverse. They were shaped by local tradition and climate. The landscape has changed drastically since the development of modern educational system in Europe and its proliferation around the world. Just like modern buildings, modern schools today tend to be more or less the same around the world. How should we understand this process? And how should we position ourselves to it? This short paper is just a prolegomenon of such an inquiry. The first part of the paper is historical and longer. It is devoted to clarify the origin and essential feature of modern education. Modern education was fueled by philanthropy and desire to enlighten the world. At the same time, it retained strong obsession with method, which was globally applicable as technology. The second part is philosophical and short. It asserts the necessity of the critique of modern education and hints at the way for this. If this critique can be sustained, the theme of topography of education will become more relevant.
Education as cultural cultivation includes the practice of caring for ideas. But what is the nature of ideas and what is their role in the educational process? How do ideas relate to ideals? And should (educational) ideas be “put into practice”? Is this possible, and desirable? It is argued in this contribution that we should we be more careful about the role of ideas in the process of education and our lives in general.
The paper starts with commentaries on philosophical and etymological backgrounds, and then addresses the question of what makes ideas “successful”. Two apparently successful ideas are exemplary discussed, namely, the idea of the nobleness of the heart, and the idea of authentic living. Additionally, the topic is raised how to deal with educational ideas appropriately, and a plea for “modest ideas” is expressed.