It is evident that helping students learn “how to learn” develop learning power. This makes young learners confident and prepared to face the challenges of life. However, this appears hard-to-accomplish in isolation without the active involvement of parents and teachers. This paper aims to investigate how teacher-student closeness, parents involvement and learning power fix together and the extent to which achievement goal orientation explains the association between the context and students’ learning. A sample of 1882 Chinese high school students in Beijing were recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of student perceived achievement goal motivation, teacher-student closeness and parent involvement in predicting students’ learning power. The results demonstrate that teacher-student closeness and parent involvement were highly associated with learning power and predicted a high mastery-oriented goal motivation. The mastery-oriented goal motivation as a mediating role partially explained the association between context and students’ learning power. The findings highlight the importance of students’ learning motivation and contexts of teacher and parent involvement in developing students’ learning qualities and power.
The aim of the article is contributing to the education system of Mongolia. In general, the education system of Mongolia is divided into four different levels or stages. In particular, the first level is preschool education, which is called a kindergarten garden when the children enrolled at three years old. The second level is secondary education with 12 years, including primary education (6 years), lower secondary education (3 years), and upper secondary education (3 years). The third level is vocational education (2 years). The final level is higher education which we provided educational finance, management, academic programs and qualifications and enrolment in this study. In addition, we analyzed the students’ majors representing the most common subjects and the number of students between 2009 and 2019 in Mongolia. Based on the results, most students choose business management followed by engineering and education. Education institutions can be categorized into public and private. Public pre-education and secondary education institutions are free of charge. However, all higher education institutions have tuition fees. For example, private universities and colleges are the most expensive. In addition, nowadays, non-formal education is rapidly developing in Mongolia. Many Mongolians follow lifelong learning for professional growth and new knowledge skills.
Comparison of the School Systems in Japan and Korea: From the Perspective of IB
The world's demand for quality of life is changing. This means that the world is changing from a competitive society to a cooperative society. In order to realize this, it is important to make the individual "self" the basis of the International Baccalaureate Program. The introduction of the International Baccalaureate Program makes it necessary to reexamine conventional schooling.
Comparing the state of educational policy in Korea and Japan, the most important difference is that in Korea decentralization of education has begun, but in Japan centralization of education has remained. In terms of culture, the two countries share common roots in Confucianism. However, there are significant differences between the two governments in the way their cultures have developed. These differences in structural changes are affecting various aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to use the above as a basis for identifying a curriculum in which the two countries can work together to raise children who can appreciate the differences between the people of Korea and Japan, as described in the I.B. philosophy.
A Study on the Visual Representation of Knowledge of IB Teachers Using Visual Narrative
In previous studies, it has been pointed out through interviews that International Baccalaureate teachers tend to have constructivism-based teaching and learning theories, while Japanese teachers tend to have objectivism-based teaching and learning theories. However, we believe that there are weaknesses in the previous studies. First, they are verbal surveys, which limits their ability to get at the reality of teachers' perceptions. Second, despite the importance of how teachers understand about knowledge as a basis for adopting new teaching and learning theories, these studies focus only on teaching and learning theories and not on how teachers cognize about knowledge.
Therefore, this study attempts to overcome these weaknesses by interviewing teachers about their visual representation of knowledge using the research method of visual narratives proposed by Yoko Yamada. The teachers who cooperated in our research were three IB teachers and three non-IB teachers. We modeled the commonalities in their visual narratives and discussed them.
The outcomes of the above study are the followings. First, we showed that it may not be easy to categorize IB teachers and non-IB teachers based on the image of knowledge they have. Second, we found cases in which the image of knowledge and the image of teaching and learning did not mesh or were parallel in individuals. Lastly, we pointed out that there is a strong affinity between IB teacher education and visual narrative.
On the other hand, one of the limitations of this study is that it is a hypothesis-generating study, using the method of visual narratives, which is not established in teacher pedagogy or IB research. In light of the above, future perspectives include increasing the number of research subjects and deepening our understanding of how teachers' understanding of knowledge are formed and transformed. In addition, by continuing to conduct interviews using visual narratives, we hope to develop the potential of visual narratives as a research method in teacher education. Furthermore, we would like to explore the effectiveness of visual narratives as a way to reflect and transform perceptions about knowledge.